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  • Make binding syntax more consistent

    Make binding syntax more consistent

    Quick Reference of Latest Syntax

    Last updated: Sep. 11th - 1.0.0-alpha.4

    <!-- flow control -->
    <div v-if="ok">
    <div v-for="item in items">
    <div v-show="hi">
    <!-- two-way form binding -->
    <input v-model="abc">
    <!-- literal directive: add hash before equal -->
    <a v-link#="/abc/123"></a>
    <!-- event handlers -->
    <!-- key filter for keypress events -->
    <input on-keyup-esc="handleEsc">
    <!-- normal attribute bindings, make it reactive by adding "bind-" -->
    <img bind-src="baseURL + '/avatar/' + username + '.png'">
    <a bind-href="'/profile/' + username"></a>
    <!-- class & style are enhanced to accept objects and arrays -->
    <!-- toggle classes -->
    <div bind-class="{ 'class-a': true, 'class-b': false }"></div>
    <!-- apply a list of classes -->
    <div bind-class="[ dynamicClass, 'literal-class' ]"></div>
    <!-- apply style object (camelCase accepted) -->
    <div bind-style="{ fontSize: '14px', color: 'red' }"></div>
    <!-- apply multiple style objects -->
    <div bind-style="[ styleObjectA, styleObjectB ]"></div>
    <!-- shorthand for "bind-", just add colon -->
    <img :src="...">
    <a :href="..."></a>
    <!-- component props, also use "bind-" or colon shorthand -->
    <!-- without "bind-" or colon it's passed as a literal string -->
    <!-- v-el and v-ref now use dedicated syntax -->
    <!-- registers vm.$.child -->
    <comp $.child></comp>
    <!-- registers vm.$$.node -->
    <div $$.node></div>
    <!-- caveat: must use dash-case instead of camelCase, similar to props -->
    <!-- registers vm.$.someComp -->
    <comp $.some-comp></comp>


    Currently we have several types of bindings in the template:

    1. Reactive directives, e.g. v-style, v-on & v-repeat. Their attribute values are directly evaluated as expressions in the current component scope, and cannot contain mustache tags.
    2. (Dynamic) Literal directives, e.g. v-transition, v-ref & v-el. Their attribute values are treated as plain strings and can contain mustache tags - but it's not always reactive: only v-transition is reactive when containing mustache tags; the other two evaluate them only once.
    3. Normal HTML attributes with mustache tags. These are converted into v-attr internally.
    4. Prop bindings, e.g. my-prop="{{abc}}". Props' attribute values are treated as plain strings and can contain mustache tags; the prop binding is only dynamic if it contains mustache tags.
    5. Directive param attributes, e.g. transition-mode, track-by, number & debounce. These are treated almost as normal attributes, but evaluated only once.


    Well, as you probably have noticed, it's confusing! There are many types of attributes and there's no clear rule on where expressions are expected and where mustache interpolations are allowed.

    Specifically, the prop syntax could use some improvement. The original intention of making props require mustaches tags to be reactive is so that a dynamic prop can look different from normal HTML attributes. But given that normal attributes can contain mustache tags as well, it's still not explicit enough. It's also much more common to use dynamic props than literal strings, and using mustache tags to indicate reactivity is simply not intuitive.

    Another problem is it becomes awkward when you want to pass a literal number/boolean prop, because without mustache tags, the attribute value is just a string. You'd have to write prop="{{123}}" or prop="{{true}}" to pass a real number or boolean. Currently, Vue auto-casts literal props into numbers/booleans if possible, which this may not always be what we want - what if we want to pass in a string of numbers?


    Last Updated: Sep.11th (1.0.0-alpha.4)

    Here's some pretty radical changes (or maybe not), but imo conceptually much cleaner. The goal here is to 1) eliminate {{ }} inside attribute values; and 2) categorize the syntax by their purpose.

    1. Text and HTML interpolations. Handled with {{ }} and {{{ }}}. And this will also be the only places where mustaches are used.

    2. Vue directives. These preserve the v- prefix because they do something special. Binding values are always parsed as expressions. No more arguments or multiple clauses, just one expression followed by one or more filters. Only v-for (previously v-repeat) preserves the item in items special syntax.

      <!-- view logic -->
      <p v-show="ok"></p>
      <p v-if="!ok"></p>
      <p v-for="item in items"></p>
      <!-- two-way binding -->
      <input v-model="val">
      <!-- empty directives -->
      <div v-cloak></div>
      <div v-pre></div>

      And that's it. Only 6 core directives. (v-text and v-html are also preserved, but they are replaceable by interpolations)

      Literal Syntax

      In 1.0, all core directives are either reactive or empty. But sometimes we may want to pass in a literal string to a custom directive instead of a dynamic expression, similar to 0.12 literal directives. But in 1.0 we want to make this explicit, so we can clearly know whether the attribute value is actually a string or an expression. So, in 1.0 there will no longer be the concept of "literal directives", we use the dot-equal syntax to indicate we are passing a literal value to the directive. The directive's update function will be called once, with the literal string as the argument:

      <a v-link#="/a/b/c">
    3. Event handlers. Prefixed with on-. Value always parsed as expressions, can either be the method name or a statement (e.g. a = !a). I've raised this once before, but people seemed to really like the fact that v-on starts with v-. IMO event handlers deserve something different and more succinct.

      <!-- easier to type, and reads better -->
      <form on-submit="handleSubmit"></form>
      <!-- multiple listeners also much cleaner -->
      <!-- in addition: key filter can be replaced with: -->
      <input on-keyup-enter="doThis" on-keyup-esc="doThat">
    4. Normal attribute bindings. Currently these are done via putting {{ }} inside attribute values. This often leads to people thinking in a string-template fashion and get confused about where {{ }} are allowed and where not. The proposal is to prefix dynamic attribute bindings with the bind- prefix:

      <!-- plain string -->
      <img src="/avatars/123.png">
      <!-- bind to expression -->
      <img bind-src="'/avatars/' + userId + '.png'">
      <!-- style/class are enhanced to accept object/array values -->
      <div bind-class="classes"></div>
      <div bind-class="[classA, classB]"></div>
      <div bind-class="{ classA: true, classB: false }"></div>
      <div bind-style="cssString"></div>
      <div bind-style="{ fontSize: fontSize, color: currentColor }"></div>
      <div bind-style="[styleObjectA, styleObjectB]"></div>

      In addition, the bind- prefix can be shortened as a colon, which is totally optional:

      <img :src="'/avatars/' + userId + '.png'">
    5. Props. Similar to normal attribute bindings, non-prefixed props are always passed down as literal strings; To pass a dynamic prop, add bind- or colon prefix.

      Also, binding type indicators are now moved from the attribute value into the attribute name, right before the equal sign.

    6. Special attributes (including both directive params & literal directives). These will only appear together with either a directive or a component. You can also use bind- or colon prefixes for these, but only is, ref, el and transition will have reactive behavior, other directive params are evaluated only once (Vue will tell you in dev mode).

    7. Child component and element refs (previously v-ref and v-el) are no longer directives. They now have their own dedicated syntaxes. (see #1292)

    The benefits:

    1. Explicit. The code says what it does.
    2. Simpler. Smaller set of core directives. No more "args" for directives; no more multiple clauses; It's just expressions + filters.
    3. No more confusion about mustache inside attributes. If you see a v-, on- or bind- prefix, it always means the value is an expression. If there's no prefix, then it's a always a plain string!
    4. Eliminates edge cases like src="{{abc}}" causing 404 requests and style="{{something}}" gets thrown away in IE. Also eliminates the need for v-attr.


    Please don't dislike this proposal just for the sake of "why so many changes"; all the changes proposed here can be implemented in a backwards compatible way in 1.0.0-alpha (with deprecation warnings) and migration should not be unacceptably painful.

    opened by yyx990803 212
  • 2.0 Changes

    2.0 Changes

    This is a live document. Last update: 08/17/2016 as of 2.0.0-rc.2

    General Notes

    • A checked item means it has been implemented in the 2.0 development branch.
    • Features subject to change during development.
    • The breaking change list is not guaranteed to be complete during development.
    • There are some upgrade tips at the end.

    High Level Changes

    • The template parser no longer relies on the DOM (unless you are using the real DOM as your template), so as long as you are using string templates (<script type="text/x-template">, inline JavaScript strings, or compiled via single-file components), you are no longer subject to any of the template parsing limitations in 1.x. However, if you are relying on mounting to an element with existing content as template (using the el option), you will still be subject to those limitations.
    • The compiler (the part which converts a template string to a render function) and the runtime can now be separated. There will be two different builds:
      • Standalone build: includes both the compiler and the runtime. This functions basically exactly the same Vue 1.x does.
      • Runtime only build: since it doesn't include the compiler, you need to either pre-compiled templates in a compile step, or manually written render functions. The npm package will export this build by default, since when consuming Vue from npm, you will likely be using a compilation step (with Browserify or Webpack), during which vueify or vue-loader will perform the template pre-compilation.

    Global config

    • [x] Vue.config.silent
    • [x] Vue.config.optionMergeStrategies
    • [x] Vue.config.devtools
    • [x] Vue.config.errorHandler new - global hook for handling uncaught errors during component render and watchers (default behavior is ~~logging the error stack~~ throwing in place)
    • [x] Vue.config.keyCodes new - configure custom key aliases for v-on.
    • ~~Vue.config.debug~~ deprecated, no longer useful since warnings come with stack traces by default now
    • ~~Vue.config.async~~ deprecated, async is required for rendering performance
    • ~~Vue.config.delimiters~~ reworked as a component-level option
    • ~~Vue.config.unsafeDelimiters~~ deprecated, use v-html

    Global API

    • [x] Vue.extend
    • [x] Vue.nextTick
    • [x] Vue.set
    • [x] Vue.delete
    • [x] Vue.directive
    • [x] Vue.component
    • [x] Vue.use
    • [x] Vue.mixin
    • [x] Vue.compile new (only in standalone build)
    • [x] Vue.transition
      • ~~stagger~~ deprecated, set and access data-index on el instead
    • [x] Vue.filter
    • ~~Vue.elementDirective~~ deprecated, just use components
    • ~~Vue.partial~~ deprecated, use functional components


    • [x] data
    • [x] props
      • [x] prop validation
      • [x] default value
      • ~~coerce~~ deprecated. If you want to convert a prop, setup a local computed value based on it.
      • ~~prop binding modes~~ deprecated (v-model can work on components)
    • [x] propsData new, instantiation only
    • [x] computed
    • [x] methods
    • [x] watch
    • [x] el
    • [x] template
    • [x] render new
    • ~~replace~~ deprecated, components now must have exactly one root element.
    Lifecycle Hooks
    • [x] ~~init~~ beforeCreate
    • [x] created
    • [x] beforeDestroy
    • [x] destroyed
    • [x] beforeMount new
    • [x] mounted new
    • [x] beforeUpdate new
    • [x] updated new
    • [x] activated new (for keep-alive)
    • [x] deactivated new (for keep-alive)
    • [x] ~~ready~~ deprecated, use mounted (there's no longer the guarantee to be in-document)
    • ~~activate~~ deprecated, moved into vue-router
    • ~~beforeCompile~~ deprecated, use created
    • ~~compiled~~ deprecated, use mounted
    • ~~attached~~ deprecated, use custom in-dom check in other hooks
    • ~~detached~~ deprecated, same as above
    • [x] directives
    • [x] components
    • [x] transitions
    • [x] filters
    • ~~partials~~ deprecated
    • ~~elementDirectives~~ deprecated
    • [x] parent
    • [x] mixins
    • [x] name
    • [x] extends
    • [x] delimiters new, replacing the original global config option. Only available in standalone build.
    • [x] functional new, makes the component stateless and instance-less (just a render function that returns virtual nodes)
    • ~~events~~ deprecated, since no more event propagation

    Instance Properties

    • [x] vm.$data
    • [x] vm.$el
    • [x] vm.$options
    • [x] vm.$parent
    • [x] vm.$root
    • [x] vm.$children
    • [x] vm.$refs
    • ~~vm.$els~~ deprecated, merged with $refs

    Instance Methods

    • [x] vm.$watch
    • ~~vm.$get~~ deprecated, just retrieve values directly
    • ~~vm.$set~~ deprecated, use Vue.set
    • ~~vm.$delete~~ deprecated, use Vue.delete
    • ~~vm.$eval~~ deprecated, no real use
    • ~~vm.$interpolate~~ deprecated, no real use
    • ~~vm.$log~~ deprecated, use devtools
    • [x] vm.$on
    • [x] vm.$once
    • [x] vm.$off
    • [x] vm.$emit
    • ~~vm.$dispatch~~ deprecated, use global event bus or Vuex. (see below)
    • ~~vm.$broadcast~~ deprecated, same as above
    • [x] vm.$nextTick
    • ~~vm.$appendTo~~ deprecated, just use native DOM API on vm.$el.
    • ~~vm.$before~~ deprecated
    • ~~vm.$after~~ deprecated
    • ~~vm.$remove~~ deprecated
    • [x] vm.$mount
    • [x] vm.$destroy


    • [x] v-text
    • [x] v-html but {{{ }}} shorthand has been deprecated
    • [x] v-if
    • [x] v-show
    • [x] v-else
    • [x] v-for
      • [x] key (replacing track-by)
      • [x] Object v-for
      • [x] range v-for
      • [x] argument order updates: (value, index) in arr, (value, key, index) in obj
      • ~~$index and $key~~ deprecated
    • [x] v-on
      • [x] modifiers
      • [x] on child component
      • [x] custom keyCodes (now avaiable via Vue.config.keyCodes instead of Vue.directive('on').keyCodes)
    • [x] v-bind
      • [x] as prop
      • [x] xlink
      • [x] bind object
    • [x] v-bind:style
      • [x] prefix sniffing
    • [x] v-bind:class
    • [x] v-model
      • [x] lazy (as modifier)
      • [x] number (as modifier)
      • [x] ignoring composition events
      • ~~debounce~~ deprecated, use v-on:input + 3rd party debounce function
    • [x] v-cloak
    • [x] v-pre
    • [x] v-once new
    • ~~v-ref~~ now just a special attribute as ref
    • ~~v-el~~ deprecated (merged with ref)

    Special Components

    • [x] <component>
      • [x] :is
      • [x] async components
      • [x] inline-template
    • [x] <transition>
    • [x] <transition-group>
    • [x] <keep-alive>
    • [x] <slot>
    • ~~partial~~ deprecated

    Special Attributes

    • [x] key
    • [x] ref
    • [x] slot

    Server-side Rendering

    • [x] renderToString
    • [x] renderToStream
    • [x] client-side hydration

    Other Breaking Changes

    v-for iteration syntax change

    • Deprecating $index and $key

      Both of these are being deprecated in favor of more explicit named indices and keys. This syntax is a bit magical and has limitations in nested loops. As a bonus, there will be two fewer points of syntax for newcomers to learn.

    • New array syntax

      • value in arr
      • (value, index) in arr (switched order of arguments to be more consistent with JavaScript's forEach and map)
    • New object syntax

      • value in obj
      • (value, key) in obj (switched order of arguments, partly to be more consistent with many common object iterators, such as lodash's)
      • (value, key, index) in obj (index will now be available in object iteration for visual purposes, such as table striping)

    Directive interface change

    In general, in 2.0 directives have a greatly reduced scope of responsibility: they are now only used for applying low-level direct DOM manipulations. In most cases, you should prefer using Components as the main code-reuse abstraction.

    Directives no longer have instances - this means there's no more this inside directive hooks and bind, update and unbind now receives everything as arguments.

    Note the binding object is immutable, setting binding.value will have no effect, and properties added to it will not be persisted. You can persist directive state on el if you absolutely need to:

    <div v-example:arg.modifier="a.b"></div>
    // example directive
    export default {
      bind (el, binding, vnode) {
        // the binding object exposes value, oldValue, expression, arg and modifiers.
        binding.expression // "a.b"
        binding.arg // "arg"
        binding.modifiers // { modifier: true }
        // the context Vue instance can be accessed as vnode.context.
      // update has a few changes, see below
      update (el, binding, vnode, oldVnode) { ... },
      // componentUpdated is a new hook that is called AFTER the entire component
      // has completed the current update cycle. This means all the DOM would
      // be in updated state when this hook is called. Also, this hook is always
      // called regardless of whether this directive's value has changed or not.
      componentUpdated (el, binding, vnode, oldVNode) { ... },
      unbind (el, binding, vnode) { ... }

    You can use destructuring if you only care about the value:

    export default {
      bind (el, { value }) {
        // ...

    In addition, the update hook has a few changes:

    1. It no longer gets called automatically after bind.
    2. It now always gets calls when the component is re-rendered, regardless of whether the value it's bound to has changed or not. You can compare binding.value === binding.oldValue to skip unnecessary updates, but there are also cases where you'd want to always apply updates, e.g. when the directive is bound to an Object that might have been mutated instead of replaced.

    elementDirective, directive params and directive options such as acceptStatement, deep etc. are all deprecated.

    Filter Usage and Syntax Change

    In Vue 2.0, there are several changes to the filter system:

    1. Filters can now only be used inside text interpolations ({{}} tags). In the past we've found using filters with directives such as v-model, v-on etc. led to more complexity than convenience, and for list filtering on v-for it is more appropriate to move that logic into JavaScript as computed properties.

    2. Vue 2.0 will not ship with any built-in filters. It is recommended to use standalone libraries dedicated for solving problems in a specific domain, e.g. moment.js for formatting dates and accounting.js for formatting financial currencies. You are also welcome to create your own filter pack and share it with the community!

    3. The filter syntax has changed to be more inline with JavaScript function invocation, instead of taking space-delimited arguments:

      {{ date | formatDate('YY-MM-DD') }}

    Transition System

    Transition CSS class changes:

    The always-on v-transition class is no longer added and Vue now uses the same classes Angular and React CSSTransitionGroup does:

    • v-enter: applied before element is inserted, remove after 1 tick. (starting state for enter)

    • v-enter-active: applied before element is inserted, removed when transition/animation finishes. (active + ending state for enter)

    • v-leave: applied right when the leave transition is triggered, remove after 1 tick (starting state for leave)

    • v-leave-active: applied right when the leave transition is triggered, removed when the transition/animation finishes. (active + ending state for leave)

      v-enter-active and v-leave-active gives you the ability to specify different easing curves for enter/leave transitions. In most cases, upgrading means simply replacing your current v-leavewith v-leave-active. (For CSS animations, use v-enter-active + v-leave-active)

    Transition API Change

    • The <transition> component

      All single-element transition effects are now applied by wrapping the target element/component with the <transition> built-in component. This is an abstract component, which means it does not render an extra DOM element, nor does it show up in the inspected component hierarchy. It simply applies the transition behavior to the wrapped content inside.

      The simplest usage example:

        <div v-if="ok">toggled content</div>

      The component defines a number of props and events that maps directly to the old transition definition options:


      • name: String

        Used to automatically generate transition CSS class names. e.g. name: 'fade' will auto expand to .fade-enter, .fade-enter-active, etc. Defaults to "v".

      • appear: Boolean

        Whether to apply transition on initial render. Defaults to false.

      • css: Boolean

        Whether to apply CSS transition classes. Defaults to true. If set to false, will only trigger JavaScript hooks registered via component events.

      • type: String

        Specify the type of transition events to wait for to determine transition end timing. Available values are "transition" and "animation". By default, it will automatically detect the type that has a longer duration.

      • mode: String

        Controls the timing sequence of leaving/entering transitions. Available modes are "out-in" and "in-out"; defaults to simultaneous.

      • enterClass, leaveClass, enterActiveClass, leaveActiveClass, appearClass, appearActiveClass: String

        Individually configure transition CSS classes.

      Example applying transition to dynamic components:

      <transition name="fade" mode="out-in" appear>
        <component :is="view"></component>


      Corresponds to the JavaScript hooks available in 1.x API.

      • before-enter
      • enter
      • after-enter
      • before-leave
      • leave
      • after-leave
      • before-appear
      • appear
      • after-appear


      <transition @after-enter="transitionComplete">
        <div v-show="ok">toggled content</div>

      When the entering transition completes, the component's transitionComplete method will be called with the transitioned DOM element as the argument.

      Some notes:

      • leave-cancelled is no longer available for insertion/removals. Once a leave transition starts, it cannot be cancelled. It is, however, still available for v-show transitions.
      • Similar to 1.0, for enter and leave hooks, the presence of cb as the second argument indicates the user wants explicit control of the ending timing of the transition.
    • The <transition-group> component

      All multi-element transition effects are now applied by wrapping the elements with the <transition-group> built-in component. It exposes the same props and events as <transition> does. The difference being that:

      1. Unlike <transition>, <transition-group> renders a real DOM element. By default it renders a <span>, and you can configure what element is should render via the tag prop. You can also use it with the is attribute, e.g. <ul is="transition-group">.
      2. <transition-group> does not support the mode prop.
      3. Every child in a <transition-group> must be uniquely keyed.


      <transition-group tag="ul" name="slide">
        <li v-for="item in items" :key="item.id">
          {{ item.text }}

      Moving Transitions

      <transition-group> supports moving transitions via CSS transform. When a child's position on screen has changed after an updated, it will get applied a moving CSS class (auto generated from the name prop or configured with the moveClass prop). If the CSS transform property is "transition-able" when the moving class is applied, the element will be smoothly animated to its destination using the FLIP technique.

      See a live demo here.

    • Creating Reusable Transitions

      Now that transitions are applied via components, they are no longer considered an asset type, so the global Vue.transition() method and the transition option are both deprecated. You can just configure the transition inline with component props and events. But how do we create reusable transition effects now, especially those with custom JavaScript hooks? Well, the answer is creating your own transition components (they are particularly suitable as functional components):

      Vue.component('fade', {
        functional: true,
        render (createElement, { children }) {
          const data = {
            props: {
              name: 'fade'
            on: {
              beforeEnter () { /* ... */ }, // <-- Note hooks use camelCase in JavaScript (same as 1.x)
              afterEnter () { /* ... */ }
          return createElement('transition', data, children)

      You can then use it like this:

        <div v-if="ok">toggled content</div>

    v-model changes

    • The lazy and number params are now modifiers:

      <input v-model.lazy="text">
    • New modifier: .trim - trims the input, as the name suggests.

    • The debounce param has been deprecated. (See upgrade tip at bottom)

    • v-model no longer cares about initial inline value. It will always treat the Vue instance data as the source of truth. This means the following will render with a value of 1 instead of 2:

      data: {
        val: 1
      <input v-model="val" value="2">

      Same goes for <textarea> with existing content. So instead of:

      <textarea v-model="val">hello world</textarea>


      data () {
        return {
          val: 'hello world'
      <textarea v-model="val"></textarea>

      The main idea is that the JS side should be considered the source of truth, not your templates.

    • v-model no longer works when used on a v-for iterated primitive value:

      <input v-for="str in strings" v-model="str">

      This doesn't work because it's the equivalent of this in JavaScript:

      strings.map(function (str) {
        return createElement('input', ...)

      As you can see, setting str to another value in the iterator function will do nothing because it's just a local variable in the function scope. Instead, you should use an array of objects so that v-model can update the field on the object:

      <input v-for="obj in objects" v-model="obj.str">

    Props Behavior

    • .once and .sync are deprecated. Props are now always one-way down. To produce side effects in the parent scope, a component needs to explicitly emit an event instead of relying on implicit binding.
    • Mutating a prop locally is now considered an anti-pattern, e.g. declaring a prop a and then set this.a = someOtherValue in the component. Due to the new rendering mechanism, whenever the parent component re-renders, the child component's local changes will be overwritten. In general, in 2.0 you should treat props as immutable. Most use cases of mutating a prop can be replaced by either a data property or a computed property.


    keep-alive is no longer a special attribute: it is now a wrapper component, similar to <transition>:

        <component :is="view"></component>

    This makes it possible to use keep-alive on multiple conditional children (note the children should eventually evaluate to a single child - any child other than the first one will be ignored):

        <comp-a v-if="a > 1"></comp-a>
        <comp-b v-else></comp-b>

    When used together with <transition>, make sure to nest it inside:

          <component :is="view"></component>


    • It is no longer supported to have duplicate <slot>s with the same name in the same template. When a slot is rendered it is "used up" and cannot be rendered elsewhere in the same render tree.
    • Content inserted via named <slot> no longer preserves the slot attribute. Use a wrapper element to style them, or, for advanced use cases, modify the inserted content programmatically using render functions.


    • v-ref is now no longer a directive: it is now a special attribute similar to key and transition:

      <!-- before -->
      <comp v-ref:foo></comp>
      <!-- after -->
      <comp ref="foo"></comp>

      Dynamic ref bindings are now also supported:

      <comp :ref="dynamicRef"></comp>
    • vm.$els and vm.$refs are merged. When used on a normal element the ref will be the DOM element, and when used on a component the ref will be the component instance.

    • vm.$refs are no longer reactive, because they are registered/updated during the render process itself. Making them reactive would require duplicate renders for every change.

      On the other hand, $refs are designed primarily for programmatic access in JavaScript - it is not recommended to rely on $refs in templates because it entails referring to state that does not belong to the instance itself.


    • track-by has been replaced with key. It now follows the same rule for binding an attribute: without v-bind: or : prefix, it is treated as a literal string. In most cases you'd want to use a dynamic binding, which expects a full expression instead of a string key. For example:

      <!-- 1.x -->
      <div v-for="item in items" track-by="id">
      <!-- 2.0 -->
      <div v-for="item in items" :key="item.id">
    • Interpolation inside attributes are deprecated:

      <!-- 1.x -->
      <div id="{{ id }}">
      <!-- 2.0 -->
      <div :id="id">
    • Attribute binding behavior change: only null, undefined and false are considered falsy when binding attributes. This means 0 and empty strings will render as-is. For enumerated attributes. This means :draggable="''" will render as draggable="true".

      Also, for enumerated attributes, in addition to the falsy values above, the string value of "false" will also render as attr="false".

    • When used on a custom component, v-on now only listens to custom events $emitted by that component. (no longer listens to DOM events)

    • v-else no longer works with v-show - just use negation expression.

    • One time bindings ({{* foo }}) deprecated - use v-once instead.

    • Array.prototype.$set/$remove deprecated (use Vue.set or Array.prototype.splice instead)

    • :style no longer supports inline !important

    • root instance can no longer use template props (use propsData instead)

    • The el option can no longer be used in Vue.extend. It can now only be used as an instance creation option.

    • Vue.set and Vue.delete cannot work on Vue instances. It is now mandatory to properly declare all top-level reactive properties in the data option.

    • It is now also prohibited to replace a component instance's root $data. This prevents some edge cases in the reactivity system and makes the component state more predictable (especially with type-checking systems).

    • User watchers created via vm.$watch are now fired before the associated component re-renders. This gives the user a chance to further update other state before the component re-render, thus avoiding unnecessary updates. For example, you can watch a component prop and update the component's own data when the prop changes.

      To do something with the DOM after component updates, just use the updated lifecycle hook.

    Upgrade Tips

    How to Deal with Deprecation of $dispatch and $broadcast?

    The reason that we are deprecating $dispatch and $broadcast is that event flows that depend on the components tree structure can be hard to reason about when the components tree becomes large (simply put: it doesn't scale well in large apps and we don't want to set you up for pain later). $dispatch and $broadcast also do not solve the communication between sibling components. Instead, you can use a pattern similar to the EventEmitter in Node.js: a centralized event hub that allows components to communicate, no matter where they are in the components tree. Because Vue instances implement the event emitter interface, you can actually use an empty Vue instance for that purpose:

    var bus = new Vue()
    // in component A's method
    bus.$emit('id-selected', 1)
    // in component B's created hook
    bus.$on('id-selected', this.someMethod)

    And don't forget to use $off to unbind the event.

    // in component B's destroyed hook
    bus.$off('id-selected', this.someMethod)

    This pattern can serve as a replacement for $dispatch and $broadcast in simple scenarios. But for more complex cases, it is recommended to introduce a dedicated state management layer using Vuex.

    How to Deal with the Deprecation of Array Filters?

    For list filtering with v-for - one of the more common usage of filters - it is now recommended to use computed properties that return a processed copy of the original Array (see updated data grid example). The benefits is that you are no longer limited by the arbitrary filter syntax/API - it's just plain JavaScript now, and you naturally have access to the filtered result because it is a computed property.

    Also see this discussion thread.

    How to Deal with the Deprecation of debounce for v-model?

    Debouncing is used to limit how often we execute Ajax requests and other expensive operations. Vue's debounce attribute parameter for v-model makes this easy, but it also debounces state updates rather than the expensive operations themselves, which comes with limitations.

    These limitations become apparent when designing a search indicator. Take a look at that example. Using the debounce attribute, there'd be no way to detect a dirty input before the search begins, because we'd lose access to the input's real-time state. By decoupling the debounce function from Vue, we're able to debounce only the operation we want to limit.

    There will be other times when debouncing isn't quite the right wrapper function. In the very common example of hitting an API for search suggestions, waiting to offer suggestions until after the user has stopped typing isn't an ideal experience. What you probably want instead is a throttling function. Now since you're already using a utility library like lodash for debounce, refactoring to use throttle instead takes only a few seconds!

    opened by yyx990803 210
  • General FAQ

    General FAQ

    Use this thread for simple, quick questions to avoid cluttering the issue list. Alternatively you can try the #vuejs IRC channel on freenode.

    Also, read the wiki FAQ first.

    opened by yyx990803 170
  • 1.0 binding syntax (discussion thread)

    1.0 binding syntax (discussion thread)

    Note: This post may contain outdated content. Latest reference is now maintained at #1325

    Here's yet another long post on the new binding syntax. I know we have gone through a lot of changes during the alpha phase, but please, bear with me - I want to make sure we land on something that is good enough to be called a 1.0 - something that is consistent, explicit, and most importantly, stable. We are going to strictly follow semver post 1.0 - I don't want to have to release 2.0 in a few months ;)

    I've been thinking about all the discussion on consistent v-, and I feel that the new syntax may indeed be a bit too different from what we have in 0.12. Some of the justifications about the additional prefixes was based on the fact that Angular 2 and Aurelia are both introducing custom syntax for bindings; but then I realize Vue is not Angular or Aurelia, because these two are full-stack frameworks, where Vue aims to be flexible in as many use cases as possible.

    So, let's take a step back and think about the original problems that we set out to solve with the new syntax, and evaluate what we have so far:

    1. Confusion about expressions vs. literals for directives


      <div v-text="msg"></div>
      <div v-link="/a/b/c"></div>

      Here msg is an expression but a/b/c is a literal string. There's no way to tell which should be literal except looking at the directive's documentation.

      Current solution in alpha.4:

      Explicit syntax for literal directives: v-link#="123". This also simplifies implementation of custom directives. I think this is a good change.

    2. Confusion about where mustaches are allowed.


      <!-- these works... -->
      <a v-link="/a/b/{{abc}}"></a>
      <a href="/a/b/{{abc}}"></a>
      <!-- these don't -->
      <a v-model="{{abc}}">
      <a v-attr="href: 'a/b/{{abc}}'">

      The general rule is that mustaches are only allowed in literal strings but not in expressions. But mustaches just make people think in the string template mindset and assume it should work everywhere.

      In addition, mustaches inside attributes have some subtle gotchas, for example when used in src it causes a 404 error; when used in style it causes IE to ignore it.

      Current solution in alpha.4:

      No more mustaches inside attribute values. Attribute bindings use the bind- special prefix.

      As someone pointed out, this introduces an additional prefix and isn't as distinctive and consistent as v-. But v-attr also has its own warts, mostly related to the "arguments + multiple clauses" micro-syntax. We will discuss this in more details below.

    3. Directive micro-syntax


      <div v-on="click: doThis, keyup: doThat"></div>
      <div v-attr="href: address, src: imgSrc"></div>

      The problem here is that it looks like an object, but it is not; it also becomes awkward to format (different indentation, no syntax highlight) when you have a lot of handlers/attributes:

          click: doThis,
          keyup: doThat | key 'esc',
          keyup: doSomethingElse | key 'enter'">

      Current Solution in alpha.4:


      I think breaking each binding into a single attribute is definitely the right move. But we also introduced yet another prefix: on-.

    4. Not-so-good prop syntax.



      First, this looks like normal attribute bindings. Second, as we noted above, mustache bindings indicates that it evaluates into a literal string. However, the 0.12 prop syntax is ambiguous in this aspect:

      <component prop="{{ anObject }}">

      ^ This passes down the actual object.

      <component prop="abc-{{ anObject }}">

      ^ This will try to concatenate "abc-" and the object, resulting in "abc-[object Object]".

      The binding indicator can also be confusing:

      <!-- what does this do? -->
      <component prop="abc-{{@something}}">

      Current Solution in alpha.4:


      By getting rid of mustaches and move the binding type indicator into the attribute name, I think we've solved most of the issues above, but it relies on the extra bind- prefix.


    I think with the current 1.0.0-alpha.4 syntax we've addressed most of the original issues, but also introduced some new ones. Most of the negative feedback is concerned with the fact that we now have three prefixes instead of one: v-, on- and bind-. Do event handlers and attribute bindings really deserive their own special prefix?

    My original intention was that on- and bind- would allow us to get rid of the "micro-syntax" issue mentioned above. But I also agree that more top-level prefixes also introduce additional cognitive overhead. So here's an update that attempts to address this issue:

    <!-- 0.12 directive syntax -->
    <div v-dirname="arg1: expression1, arg2: expression2"></div>
    <!-- 1.0 directive syntax -->

    So, instead of what we currently have in 1.0.0-alpha.4:


    We would write:


    A little more verbose, but more consistent, more Vue-specific, and maps to 0.12 concepts better.

    When we are using Vue alone to build an SPA, the v- prefix may not be that important anymore. So it is still possible to provide optional, more concise sugar on top of v-bind and v-on:

    <!-- : for bind -->
    <!-- @ for on -->

    You probably would prefer the shorthand for component props as well (changing two-way indicator to & instead of @):

    opened by yyx990803 137
  • Typescript and Vue in general

    Typescript and Vue in general

    I have a small problem; I'm in love with two things at the same time: Typescript and Vue. I tried a handfull different approaches to make them work together; using TS modules and/or classes with public/private/static properties to shim vue components is the best i got. I love the intelisense, autocompletion and error hints i get by doing so! But after all it is kind of hacky.

    I wanted to ask you what you think about Typescript? Do you think it is possible to bring them togeher in a more natural way? Maybe refactoring some parts of your extend routine (to make some of its internals reachable from a typescript construtor) could make a huge difference.

    contribution welcome 
    opened by indus 127
  • [Suggestion] Vue 2.0 - Bring back filters please

    [Suggestion] Vue 2.0 - Bring back filters please


    There was a hot discussion in the Gitter chat and there is a nice post on the forum about people missing the filter feature in 2.0 and it actually being a no-go to upgrading for some. This isn't a positive direction for the community it seems.

    So, I'd like to put up this suggestion to bring back filters in 2.0, because they are so loved and, I would agree, smart. Here are some of the arguments for filters (gathered from the different discussions and no guarantee for correctness):

    • They are easier to read in the templates

    thing in things | filterBy 'foo' | orderBy 'bar' | limitBy 5

    is simply easy to read. In other words, chaining filters helps make sense of what should actually be expected.

    • Filters are global, which is great in a templating/ view system. Currency is a simple example of a great filter that can be used everywhere, just by calling it.
    • Without filters, there will be a ton of boilerplate.
    • Filters allow noobs to learn faster and get a quick and nice winning experience with Vue.
    • Using a mixin for every component to include a self-made "filter" isn't really feasible.

    Needless to say, there are probably strong arguments for removing filter from an engineering perspective and why I would suggest this thread be a pros and cons and voting for or against the return of filters.


    opened by smolinari 116
  • roadmap



    • v0.9.x: Animation and Transition ✓
    • v0.10.x: API and internal improvements ✓
    • v0.11.x: Consolidate API for future specs ✓
    • v0.12.x: Improve API to make it easier to ship standalone, reusable components and build larger-scale applications.


    • Chrome dev tools extension ✓
    • CSP-compliant build ✓ (See csp branch)
    • CommonJS-based build setup ✓
      • Browserify + Vueify ✓
      • Webpack + vue-loader ✓
        • Scoped CSS (WIP)
    • Server-side rendering
    • Starter Kit


    Please discuss plugin specific topics in each plugin's respective repo. The general philosophy for these plugins is to be light, self-contained, and most importantly avoid reinventing the wheel. Build on top of solid low level solutions and mostly just make them Vue-friendly.


    • Calling for user-contributed examples for tutorials!
    • Open for blog post submissions once the blog is set up
    opened by yyx990803 88
  • 希望keep-alive能增加可以动态删除已缓存组件的功能


    What problem does this feature solve?


    What does the proposed API look like?


    feature request 
    opened by okjesse 69
  • is there any plan for

    is there any plan for "vue-native"?

    Hi @yyx990803 Thanks for your great work.. I enjoy Vue so far. This question just across my head, is there any way or do you have plan to bridge Vue to React-Native?

    Thanks again

    opened by ferry77 67
  • [feature] Ability to disable Vue observation

    [feature] Ability to disable Vue observation

    Update: If anyone ends up needing this functionality, I've released it as vue-nonreactive with the appropriate admonitions and everything.

    We have some non-plain models where we need to disable Vue's observation and walking. An example is a resource model that has access to a cache so that it can lookup related resources. This causes all of the objects in the cache to become watched (probably inefficient), as well as some additional interactions with other code. Currently, we get around this by setting a dummy Observer on the cache. Something similar to...

    import get from 'http';
    import Resource from 'resource';
    new Vue({
        data: { instance: {}, },
        ready() { this.fetch(); },
        methods: {
            fetch() {
                const Observer = Object.getPrototypeOf(this.instance.__ob__).constructor;
                .then(function(data) {
                    // initialize Resource w/ JSON document
                    const resource = new Resource(data);
                    // Protect cache with dummy observer
                    resource.cache.__ob__ = new Observer({});
                    this.instance = resource;

    This does work, but

    • relies on vue's internals
    • requires an already observed object since we cannot import the Observer class directly.

    Proposal: Add an official method for explicitly disabling Vue's observation/walking. eg, something like...

    const someThing = {
      nestedThing: {},
    // make entire object non-reactive
    // make nested object non-reactive
    vm.$set('key.path', someThing);


    • What should happen if a user set a reactive key path to an non-reactive object? Should vue warn the user? eg,

      vm.$set('a', Vue.nonreactive({});
      // different from..
      vm.$set('a', {
          someKey: Vue.nonreactive({}),
    • Should an already reactive object warn the user if attempted to be made non-reactive? eg,

    // error
    // valid
    opened by rpkilby 64
  • Optional chaining in templates does not seem to work

    Optional chaining in templates does not seem to work



    Reproduction link


    Steps to reproduce

    Use a v-if that uses optional chaining w/ @vue/cli version 4.2.0:

    v-if="test?.length > 0"

    What is expected?

    no error is thrown

    What is actually happening?

    following error is thrown:

      Errors compiling template:
      invalid expression: Unexpected token '.' in
        test?.length > 0
      Raw expression: v-if="test?.length > 0"
    contribution welcome feature request 
    opened by DRoet 63
  • activated lifehook is not called in async component

    activated lifehook is not called in async component



    Reproduction link


    Steps to reproduce

    Click "add key" and "decrease key", or just wait 10s.

    The activated lifehook behaved different in async component, sync component and dynamic component.

    What is expected?

    Activated lifehook is called in async component,

    or just behave in the same way.

    What is actually happening?

    When using async component, activated lifehook is not called when loaded for the first time.

    When using dynamic component, activated lifehook is never called after mounted.

    opened by MuffinK 0
  • chore: add prettier cache

    chore: add prettier cache

    What kind of change does this PR introduce? (check at least one)

    • [ ] Bugfix
    • [ ] Feature
    • [ ] Code style update
    • [ ] Refactor
    • [ ] Build-related changes
    • [ ] Other, please describe:

    Does this PR introduce a breaking change? (check one)

    • [ ] Yes
    • [ ] No

    If yes, please describe the impact and migration path for existing applications:

    The PR fulfills these requirements:

    • [ ] It's submitted to the main branch for v2.x (or to a previous version branch)
    • [ ] When resolving a specific issue, it's referenced in the PR's title (e.g. fix #xxx[,#xxx], where "xxx" is the issue number)
    • [ ] All tests are passing: https://github.com/vuejs/vue/blob/dev/.github/CONTRIBUTING.md#development-setup
    • [ ] New/updated tests are included

    If adding a new feature, the PR's description includes:

    • [ ] A convincing reason for adding this feature (to avoid wasting your time, it's best to open a suggestion issue first and wait for approval before working on it)

    Other information:

    opened by Simon-He95 0
  • fix(compiler-sfc): fix rewriteDefault problem when using @babel/parser@^7.20.0

    fix(compiler-sfc): fix rewriteDefault problem when using @babel/parser@^7.20.0

    close https://github.com/vuejs/vue/issues/12892

    https://github.com/babel/babel/pull/15032 change the location of the export declaration when use decorators before export

    opened by linshuohao 0
  • fix(patch): clone insert hooks to avoid being mutated during iteration

    fix(patch): clone insert hooks to avoid being mutated during iteration

    What kind of change does this PR introduce? (check at least one)

    • [x] Bugfix
    • [ ] Feature
    • [ ] Code style update
    • [ ] Refactor
    • [ ] Build-related changes
    • [ ] Other, please describe:

    Does this PR introduce a breaking change? (check one)

    • [ ] Yes
    • [x] No

    If yes, please describe the impact and migration path for existing applications:

    The PR fulfills these requirements:

    • [x] It's submitted to the main branch for v2.x (or to a previous version branch)
    • [ ] When resolving a specific issue, it's referenced in the PR's title (e.g. fix #xxx[,#xxx], where "xxx" is the issue number)
    • [x] All tests are passing: https://github.com/vuejs/vue/blob/dev/.github/CONTRIBUTING.md#development-setup
    • [x] New/updated tests are included

    If adding a new feature, the PR's description includes:

    • [ ] A convincing reason for adding this feature (to avoid wasting your time, it's best to open a suggestion issue first and wait for approval before working on it)

    Other information: repro: https://jsbin.com/zobarureye/edit?html,js,console,output

    There is a component called v-switch that is placed inside a transition-group element. The v-switch component has a directive called v-foo, accepts a boolean prop called isOn and switches its template root according to the value of isOn. The v-foo directive has an inserted hook that should be called to ensure that the binding logic is refreshed whenever the template root changes.

    opened by xiaodemen 0
  • [2.7.x] [typescript] Type inference breaks under specific circumstances

    [2.7.x] [typescript] Type inference breaks under specific circumstances



    Reproduction link


    Or create this file in minimal vue-ts (v2) project

    import {defineComponent} from "vue";
    import App from "./App.vue";
    export default defineComponent({
      // comment next line, and it works fine.
      components: {App},
      // or uncomment next line, and it works fine
      //props: {},
      data() {
        return {};
      provide(): any {
        return {
          fetchData: this.fetchData,
      created() {
      methods: {
        fetchData() {
          throw new Error("Not implemented.");

    Steps to reproduce

    Clone example repo, run pnpm install, run pnpm vue-tsc

    What is expected?

    No errors.

    What is actually happening?

    src/broken-method-type.ts:15:23 - error TS2339: Property 'fetchData' does not exist on type 'CreateComponentPublicInstance ...

    It works if you remove components: ... line, or add empty props: {}.

    (This is continuation of https://github.com/vuejs/vue/issues/12628 which is not fixed completely, or happened again, in my project it was working with vue-tsc<1.0, but happened again after update)

    opened by last-partizan 0
  • bind style merge not as expected

    bind style merge not as expected



    Reproduction link


    Steps to reproduce

    click mStyle button twice

    What is expected?

    show red border-right and blue border-bottom

    What is actually happening?

    only show red border-right. is not similar as setAttribute but vue3 is similar like setAttribute

    is this a bug?

    opened by yeli19950109 4
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